Introduction to Management

What is an Organization?

A group of people working together in structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals.

What is Management?

  • Exactly what you want to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way. 
- Fredrick Taylor
  • A set of activities directed at an organization's resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner.

      1. Activities - Planning, Decision making, Organizing, Leading, Controlling
      2. Resources - Human, Financial, Physical, Information
- Rickey W. Griffin

Main Characteristics

  1. A process or series of continuing and related activities.
  2. Involve and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.
  3. Reach the goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.

Management in Organizations

Fig: 01

Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management

Fig: 02

Fig: 03

Measuring Management Performance

Fig: 04

Who is Manager?

Manager is someone whose primary responsibility is to carry out the management process.

Manager is the person who plans and make decisions, organizes, leads and control human, financial, physical and informational resources. 

Management Process

Fig: 05

Resources of an Organization.

Fig: 06

Kinds of Managers

Fig: 07

Fig: 08

Kinds of Managers by Level

Top Managers

  • Small group of executives.
  • Manage the overall organization.
  • Establish organization's goals, overall strategy and operating policies.
  • Officially represent the organization to the external environment.
  • Make key decisions on investments, marketing, research and development and etc.
  • Work long hours.
  • Spend more time in meetings and discussions.
    • Eg: President, Vise President, Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Middle Managers

  • Large group of managers.
  • Responsible for implementing the policies and plans developed by the top managers.
  • Supervise and coordinate the activities of lower level managers.
    • Eg: Plant Manager, Operations Manager, Division Head

First-Line Managers

  • Supervise and coordinate the activities of operating employees.
  • Spend more time for supervising subordinates.
    • Eg: Supervisor, Coordinator, Office Manager

Kinds of Managers by Area

Marketing Managers 

Managers who work in areas related to the marketing function.

Eg: Product development and promotion, sales and distribution

Financial Managers

Managers deal with organizations financial resources.

Eg: Accounting, cash management and investments

Operations Managers

Managers who create and manage the systems that create an organization’s products and services.

Eg: Production control, Quality control and inventory control

Human Resources Managers

Managers who are responsible for hiring and developing employees.

Eg: Human resources planning, selection and recruiting, planning designing and implementing human resources development

Administrative Managers

Managers who are responsible for all managerial activities of an organization.

Eg: They tend to be have some basic familiarity with all functional areas of management.

Other Kinds of Managers

Other managers who were appointed according to the requirements of an organization.

Eg: Client Relations Manager, Research and Development manager, Credit Manager

Managerial Roles and Skills

Specific actions or behaviors expected of and exhibited by a manager.

Fig: 09

10 Basic Managerial Roles

Fig: 10

Managerial Skills

  • Technical Skills
    • The skills necessary to accomplish or understand tasks relevant to the organization.
  • Interpersonal Skills
    • The ability to communicate with understand , and motivate both individuals and groups.
  • Conceptual Skills
    • The manager’s ability to think in the abstract.
  • Diagnostic Skills
    • A manager’s ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation.


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